Glaucoma Evaluation and Treatment

Glaucoma is a condition that afflicts the optic nerve. The optic nerve transmits signals from your retina to the brain. Eyes need to maintain a healthy level of internal pressure. For optimal intraocular pressure, eyes produce new fluid and an equal amount of fluid flows out.

Too much fluid in the eyes causes glaucoma, which leads to high intraocular pressure due to which even the optic nerve may get damaged. Optic nerve damage can lead to impaired vision or permanent blindness. There is no cure for glaucoma, but early diagnosis and timely treatment can ease the symptoms and preserve vision.


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TYPES OF GLAUCOMA

Open Angle Glaucoma

The most common type of glaucoma, known as chronic open angle (COAG) or primary open angle, occurs when the canals draining the eye of aqueous humour become clogged. This blockage can gradually increase pressure within the eye to damaging levels. No pain occurs, so individuals are usually unaware that these changes are occurring. There are no early signs or symptoms but over the years vision will be lost starting in the periphery and moving towards the central vision.

Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma

When eye pressure builds up rapidly, it is called acute angle-closure glaucoma. This type of glaucoma commonly occurs in individuals who have narrow anterior chamber angles. In these cases, aqueous fluid behind the iris cannot pass through the pupil thus pushing the iris forward, preventing aqueous drainage through the trabecular meshwork. In cases of acute angle closure glaucoma, one may experience

• Eye Pain

• Headache

• Redness

• Blurred vision

• Halos around lights

• Nausea, and vomiting.

My Vision Eye Clinic advises its patients to have periodic eye examinations for early detection of glaucoma

DIAGNOSIS:

A comprehensive eye examination is required to detect Glaucoma.

• Visual Acuity

• Applanation Tonometry ( to measure IOP)

• Gonioscopy – to diagnose its an Open angle and Closed Angle

INVESTIGATIONS:

• VISUAL FIELD TESTS- to detect the extent of damage

• Pachymetry

• OCT RNFL- to detect pre perimetric Glaucoma

• Fundus Photo



Treatment of Glaucoma

There is no cure for glaucoma, but timely intervention can help preserve your vision. Treatments can vary from simple medications to surgery. The ophthalmologist can select the best course of treatment based on the individual conditions in your case.

MEDICAL

Eye drops can contain many symptoms of glaucoma. Medication controls the disease by slowing the production of fluid to maintain healthy intraocular pressure. Some medicines also smoothen the flow of fluid within the drainage canal. Proper medication can go a long way in controlling the symptoms and preserving your vision.

SURGICAL

If the symptoms cannot be controlled by medications, the doctor may recommend surgery. Laser eye surgery is less invasive and is the most popular treatment for glaucoma. There are a variety of procedures used by ophthalmologists to drain fluid from the eye and reduce intraocular pressure.

Treatment of glaucoma can take various forms. Your ophthalmologist can work with you to decrease risks and side effects and increase the benefits of treatment and help you with optimal preservation of your vision.

In My Vision Eye Clinic the glaucoma specialist will weigh all of these factors before deciding whether you need treatment for glaucoma, or whether you should be monitored closely as a glaucoma suspect. Being glaucoma suspect means your risk of developing glaucoma is higher than normal, and you need to have regular examination to detect the early signs of damage to the optic nerve.